Richard Fidler taught biology in the Traverse City Public Schools for 31 years. He is the author of four books about Grand Traverse history, the latest titled, Traverse City, Michigan: A Historical Narrative, 1850-2013. When he is not exploring wild places nearby, he is enjoying his favorite places in Traverse City.
Milk snakes do not milk cows, contrary to legend. They do hang around barns and other structures–sometimes houses. Someone I know shares her dwelling with occasional milk snake intruders which apparently enjoy living in the crevices of the foundation. It does little good to let her know that they are only looking for rodents and other small varmints—she does not like them. To her credit, they have become only an occasional nuisance, and are only evicted from the premises rather than summarily decapitated, a common response of humans.
I saw one quite recently, three feet of torpid elegance stretched across a bike path near where I live. Fearing for its life–since it nearly blocked the right-of-way of bicycles–I stamped on the ground to get its attention. With apparent nonchalance, it moved to one side and then into the tall grasses beside the river, its tongue flicking out every few seconds as snakes do.
Indeed, why do they do that? Reference books tell me that this is their sense of smell, but that statement is not quite accurate, since the actual organ of smell is inside their mouths. The tongue only samples the air outside. Since they don’t bring air directly past their olfactory membranes, then they can only smell whatever comes to them on the wind, a strange mechanism at least from our point of view, since we can sniff. What smells would they be sensitive to? Rodents, one might guess, and other milk snakes, females especially–if a male snake is the prime actor.
Milk snakes are harmless, but that does not mean they will not attempt to discourage those who would cause it irritation. Like many of its relatives, it will coil, hiss, and strike to incite fear in the hearts of its perceived enemies. It should be forgiven for that behavior, not beheaded.
These creatures are most commonly seen in spring and fall. They go after their prey after nightfall, seeking out mice with their flicking tongues, ready to wrap themselves around them in an instant, squeezing them so they cannot breathe. That is what constrictors do.
Milk snakes are given the name Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum, the “triangulum” element referring to a triangle or Y-shaped marking at the top of its head. In larger snakes dull red bands decorate its body, but smaller ones will have brighter red stripes bordered with black, all set upon a creamy white background.
After your initial surprise at seeing one, you will have to admire this animal for its stunning appearance. As so many snakes and reptiles are disappearing because of habitat disruption, they are to be treasured all the more. Let us live in peace with them.
Want more on snakes? Check out these TADL books about snakes
Holman, J. Alan, Harding, James H., Hensley, Marvin M., and Dudderar, Glenn R., Michigan Snakes, Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1993, 2006.
Holman, J. Alan, The Amphibians and Reptiles of Michigan: A Quaternary and Recent Faunal Adventure, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2012.
Richard Fidler is co-editor of Grand Traverse Journal.
Where is this building, stamped, “Traverse City Cigar Box Company 1920?”
We expect all our readers will get this one, so here’s some extra credit: What do you know about the cigar industry in Traverse City? When did it flourish? How many companies and employees were there? What kinds of people worked for the industry?
You might not win a cigar for your answer, but you’ll certainly go down as a legend amongst Grand Traverse Journal readers!
Thursday, June 22, 1933, Traverse City, Michigan: The Journey Begins
James (“Timber”) Gillette, George (“Pete”) Keller, Charles (“Chick”) Rennie and his wife, Margaret walked briskly towards the airplane that would take them to Milwaukee.It would be a good day to fly: the day was partly cloudy, not too warm, a welcome change from the blistering 96-degree weather that assaulted them only two days before.That heat wave had broken records all over the Midwest, but now, all that remained to remind locals of its unpleasantness was a touch of humidity.A high in the seventies was expected, perhaps a little cooler near the water.
The pilot of the aircraft, Timber, was also its owner.He had purchased it a year previous and had flown it as a charter for many customers—Chick, chief among them. Having five years experience as a pilot, Timber felt confident he could take anyone anywhere they wanted to go—provided flying conditions were right.Aviators had a certain mystique that charmed the nation in the late twenties and early thirties.Charles Lindberg had crossed the Atlantic solo only six years before, and the exploits of pilot Wiley Post were regularly printed in newspapers across the land.The previous year, Amelia Earhart had flown across the Atlantic solo, duplicating Lindberg’s achievement.Flight was for the young and the adventuresome—and that described Timber.
Pete was a mechanic hired by Timber, entrusted with keeping the airplane in top flying shape.To this end, he had undergone training in the maintenance of the aircraft in Detroit, Michigan.He knew autos, too, having operated a service station in his hometown of Frankfort, Michigan, for several years.Married with two young children, he was in transition, moving from Frankfort to Traverse City, now living in what was called a “house car” at the time at East Bay State Park (known in recent times as the Traverse City State Park).
Chick was Timber’s nephew, though the two hardly differed in age.Like Timber, he loved to fly: frequently he and Timber would travel to relatively nearby cities to conduct business for the Rennie Oil Company, the business started by his father, Charles Rennie, in 1923.Chick was only 28 years old, yet was already a vice president, carrying out company business as a seasoned veteran would.Today’s trip was to secure permission for a fuel unloading dock to be built at Greilickville, the settlement just north of the city limits in Leelanau County.The trip should not take long: Lake Michigan was only seventy miles wide, so the total time of transit could not take much more than a couple of hours.
Margaret Rennie was not a frequent flyer—in fact, years later, her daughter Halcyon said that this might have been her first flight.She decided to come along as a passenger, taking the place of the loading dock’s contractor, Ben Samuelson.Margaret and Chick went to the same school, Central High School in Traverse City, Chick graduating in 1923 when Margaret was a junior.While the school yearbook tells us little about Chick, it tells more about Margaret.She was lead actor in a popular school play at the time, Daddy Long Legs, and appeared in other productions at the school.As a junior, she was nominated as “most beautiful,” though she apparently did not win the title.A flamboyant description under portrait in her senior year declaimed,“Thy beauty is like the pearls of the ocean.”Indeed, with her smile and her light brown hair, she does stand out among her classmates.
Chick and Margaret married right after high school at ages 20 and 19 respectively.They had three young children already, John, Halcyon, and Martha Jean, ages eight, five, and three.In 1930 they lived in a pleasant house along East Bay.With Chick as an executive in a growing company, the family was moderately wealthy—a live-in maid served their needs.
The plane they approached on this day was a Stinson Junior model aircraft fitted with pontoons for landing on water. It was a four-seat model, with a large overhead wing supported by struts on either side.The cabin was completely enclosed, a fairly recent innovation in aircraft design.Timber had purchased it a year before, happy to pilot the most advanced machine he could get.Its top speed was 125 mph, fast enough to make the trip to Milwaukee in an hour-and-half or less if the weather cooperated.
The plane took off into the morning haze after nine o’clock.In twenty minutes it was approaching the Lake Michigan coast at Frankfort.Pete made sure they flew over the house of his family.They knew it would be him: it was always a joy for them to see his airplane pass overhead.
Below, the foghorns were preparing to sound.Fog was coming in from the cold waters of the Lake.
The Plunge into the Lake
The fog was as dense as iron.Timber looked at his passengers, and said they should land on the lake and taxi back to Frankfort until the fog lifted.He turned to begin the descent–too rapidly it seemed. With no visual cues to go by, it was impossible to level the flight path: Were they flying parallel to the water they would land on, or at an angle to it?At the same time, the altimeter could hardly keep up with their descent, the gauge moving faster than Timber had ever seen it.Fear stole over the cabin of the plane.
The plane hit hard on the water, the impact turning the pontoons backward.All four passengers were bruised, but not enough to keep them from devising a survival plan.Preparing to enter the water, they stripped off their heavier clothes and made signaling flags to attach to the plane, but, as water began to fill the cabin, it look as if the airplane would not stay afloat for long.They moved to the wings, and could look out towards Frankfort, a speck in the sunlight. The fog had lifted.
The three men began to make a raft out of a gas tank attached to the wing, a metal vessel that measured about four feet on a side and four inches thick.Lashing two air cushions from the cabin to it, they made a float able to support one person, Margaret.As she told the story, “I got on the raft and the boys held onto the edge, swimming and trying to propel it toward shore.They talked back and forth, urging each other to stick to it and “Timber” said to me, “I got you in this and I’ll get you out.”She was told to lie on the raft to avoid exposure to the chilling water; the others would have to stay immersed since float did not have enough buoyancy for them all.
At 3:30, five hours after they had flown over Frankfort, the plane sank.They were alone, the four of them, fifteen miles from shore, with the shadows of afternoon beginning to lengthen.The temperature was in the seventies—at most—but the water was much colder.Typically, in June it might be as warm as the mid- to upper fifties, and there is no reason to think it would have been warmer.That year Grand Traverse Bay had frozen later than it ever had—in late March—but it had frozen as it almost always did in that era.
The human body cannot endure cold water for long.Survival time in 50-degree water is only one to two hours for a person treading water or holding onto a float.The symptoms are always the same; you become confused, irrational.Slowly you sink into semi-consciousness, then losing consciousness entirely.Various factors shape how long you will survive: body fat, clothing, how much effort you expended over time, and that indefinable quality, the will to live.
The cold could not be bargained with.At five o’clock Pete started babbling incoherently.The others tried to rally him, but to no avail.He had to let go, disappearing under the waves.Timber was next, rambling on and on the way Pete had before.Chick and Margaret tried to hold him up onto the raft, but could not maintain a grip.He, too, slipped beneath the water.
That version, with Pete Keller preceding James Gillette in death, was the version given to local news media, the Traverse City Record Eagle, the Benzie county newspaper, the Benzie Banner, and the Detroit Free Press.An account given to the Steven’s Point Daily Journal (Steven’s Point, Wisconsin) has James Gillette dying first. This story could have been obtained when Margaret Rennie was first being debriefed on the Wisconsin side of the Lake, where, because of her ordeal, she was likely to be confused.
Chick boarded the raft and stayed with Margaret all night long as they talked and prayed together.All that time she had to cover a vent on the gas tank to keep more water from entering, her hand aching from the effort.Ships passed in the night, but too far away to hear their calls, too far away to see them.
Light was just beginning to illuminate the eastern sky when the cold got to Chick.He began to lose consciousness just as the others had.In a moment of awareness before the end, he gave her papers, and money, detached a gold watch–an heirloom from his family–from its chain, and handed it to his wife.She clutched onto it tightly so that it could not fall into the water and begged him, “Please don’t go, Chick,” but could not hold on to him as he slipped off the raft.
It overturned as he went under, but Margaret was somehow able to get back on.She kept her hand over the vent, not allowing water to enter.Feeling herself drifting into unconsciousness, she jerked herself back to reality, focusing on the sacrifice the three men had made for her as well as on her three children at home who would become orphans upon her death.The hours of the morning passed–and those of the early afternoon, as she grew weaker and less responsive.The sun disappeared in the late afternoon and the darkened sky spoke of another night on the raft.She knew she could not endure that.
The Rescue: Ann Arbor Car Ferry Number 7
Ann Arbor Car Ferry Number 7 was barely an hour out of Frankfort, having left in the late afternoon in hazy sunlight, her twin stacks belching black smoke as she hurried along, an awesome sight to persons on small boats near the harbor—or, for that matter, to anyone floating on a flimsy raft in the water.Three hundred thirty-seven feet long, a beam of 56 feet, and a draft of 19 feet, she was well suited for her job of carrying up to 30 railroad cars from one side of Lake Michigan to the other.Now she was on her way to Kenosha, Wisconsin.
Two points off the starboard bow, nearly dead ahead, Quartermaster Arthur Johnson, at his position at the wheel, noticed a mysterious floating object and asked the Third Officer, Peter Strom, to have a look through the ship’s glasses.After a quick glance, he ordered the boat to slow and change course to intercept the object, which by this time—it was clear—was the raft with Margaret crying out for help in the most robust voice she could muster.Captain Alex Larson, on the main deck, had heard her faint cries, and had a lifeboat sent down to effect the rescue.With a few pulls on the oars, they approached the makeshift raft made up of a fuel tank lashed to two seat cushions.Margaret lay on them weakly, barely able to help her rescuers, too exhausted to move.She was gently lifted aboard the lifeboat which was then raised to the cabin deck.Helping hands guided her to a warm berth in one of the cabins; the rescue took all of twenty minutes.
Margaret collapsed upon her rescue and was given emergency treatment. Reviving a short time later, she told her story, exhibiting “stone nerves” in the words of Captain Larson.Another account remembers her breaking down frequently in recounting the details of her experience, perhaps a more authentic description, given the trauma she had just gone through.The Stevens Point Journal, published on the Wisconsin side of the Lake, tells us about the anguish she experienced as she recounted the 33 hours that she spent on the raft:
Mrs. Rennie said all of the men were cheerful and reminded her that they were only 15 miles from shore and that they would surely be picked up soon.
“They did not complain,” she related, “although the water was bitterly cold.
“I could see the men weaken as the hours passed.I lost all count of time but I knew by the position of the sun that many hours must have passed while we were floating around.”
At this point of the story Mrs. Rennie broke down and sobbed hysterically.Calmed by Captain Larson, she continued.
“Gillette let go the raft first.He had been growing weaker all the time.He could not hang on any longer.I watched helplessly as he let go and disappeared under the water.”
Then Mrs. Rennie’s voice choked again and she was unable to continue for several minutes.
“Keller was the next to go.” She said. “The water was terribly cold and the air was chilly.Like Gillette, he couldn’t hold on any longer and my husband and I had to watch him as a grip his grip slipped off the raft.It was terrible.
“Chick (her husband) and I held on through the awful night.It was so dark and cold and once in a while a stir of wind would lap a small wave over us and it would seem that the next minute would be our last.
“It seemed the night would never pass, but we held on.Life seemed so dear.The sun came up and there we were, exhausted and hopeless of being saved.
“Chick encouraged me and I encouraged him.We thought surely help would arrive.The day passed slowly and the sun was blisteringly hot.Chick began weakening like the rest and I was desperate, knowing what had happened to the others.
“I don’t know when it happened, but it couldn’t have been more than a few hours before I was saved that Chick said to me:
“I guess I’m through.I can’t stand it any longer.” I pleaded with him to hold on, but even though he wanted to, he couldn’t.He fumbled around in his wet clothes and handed me his watch, papers, and money.
“Here, keep these,” he said.Then he said ‘goodbye’ and let go.”
The story of the drowning of her husband was too much for Mrs. Rennie and she broke down again.
They proceeded to Kenosha where a physician, upon examination, declared that she was out of danger.Exhausted, lips parched, blistered red by the sun during her ordeal, she was fundamentally undamaged by her 33 hours adrift on Lake Michigan.She was determined to tell her family and dictated the following message to the ship’s telegrapher:
Plane crash, stop.Pete and Jim drowned Thursday night, stop.Chickdrowned Friday morning, stop. I was picked up Friday night, be sure to tell mother I am all right.
The stark facts given in the transmission pierced the hearts of all who read them.
Car Ferry No. 7 returned immediately to Frankfort, arriving at 5:50 in the morning.Met there by friends and family, she returned to Traverse City to stay at the home of Chick’s parents.
The news of the disaster broke on Friday evening, June 24, at 8:45 with radio transmissions from Margaret and Captain Larsen aboard the car ferry.The captain reported that three lives had been lost, and that the plane had gone down at 10:45 on Thursday, the 22nd.Before those broadcasts, no one in the Traverse area knew about the tragedy, everyone guessing the flight had arrived safely in Milwaukee.Word spread rapidly among friends and relatives by phone and word-of-mouth as many decided to drive to Frankfort to meet Margaret.
The accident had a dramatic effect on the Traverse community.The Rennies were a well-known family, a pioneer family, and a family of some wealth and with prospects for much more, given the vigor of the oil industry at that time.Rennie Oil Company became a major distributor of petroleum products since its founding in 1923, reaching its peak in the 50’s and 60’s.Charles Rennie, the father of “Chick” who died in the crash, was founder and president until his son Ferris (called “Pete”) took over in later years.Like his brother Chick, Pete was to perish in an accident,drowning as his propeller-driven sled plunged under icy Grand Traverse Bay in 1965.
It was not just the prominence of the family that captured people’s attention at the time.The ordeal—the crash, the attempts at survival, the sacrifice of the men—made the story come alive, not just locally, but in newspapers all over the United States. The Traverse City Record Eagle announced the event with bold headlines, four columns on page one, four more on page two, with pictures of all four young people, Margaret in double size.Picked up by the Associated Press and United Press International, the story was carried nationally in all the big city newspapers from coast to coast. In particular, the Detroit Free Press offered an especially detailed account of the event.
Honoring the dead did not wait for a formal funeral.While the tragedy was being played out, the Michigan Press Association was conducting a convention in Frankfort. Moved by what had happened, on Saturday, the day after Margaret was picked up, its members boarded a vessel to pay their respects.Stopping at the approximate location where the plane had gone down, they dipped the ship’s flag, sounded bugles, and laid flowers on the waves.The Reverend H. M. Smart offered solemn prayers for those who had perished as 300 stood at attention.
A formal memorial was held for the three victims on July 17th at the First Congregational Church.Dr. Demas Cochlin delivered the eulogy: “They met their deaths bravely and well as heroes through the ages have met death.They were young men who had established themselves successfully in their home communities through diligence and ability and their untimely deaths were community losses.”Besides family and friends, all employees of the Rennie Oil Company attended the service.Margaret, having recovered from the ordeal, was also in attendance.
Scant details about George (Pete) Keller were printed in the Record Eagle edition on the Saturday the story broke.Until a month before the accident, he operated a gas station in Frankfort.Only recently had he become a mechanic and assistant for James Gillette.At the time of the accident he was living in a “house car” in East Bay State Park (currently known as Traverse City State Park).He had two children at the time of his death.
Pete is neglected in accounts of the crash, perhaps because of his lower socioeconomic status in the community.But, within the events that transpired on that awful day, his role could have been pivotal.As a trained mechanic, he was able to imagine separating the fuel tank from the aircraft to make a raft—and able to make it happen on an airplane rapidly filling with water. Certainly his skills—and confidence in his own ability—would have inspired hope that an improvised raft might save them all.
According to Pete’s father, he had a premonition something was going to happen.In a Detroit Free Press article describing the accident he said, “Two weeks ago he told me he had a premonition: ‘he was about due.’He had been flying seven years and that was about the average life of an aviator.He said he would continue to care for the plane, but was about through flying in it.”
The bodies of Charles “Chick” Rennie, James “Timber” Gillette, and George Keller were never found.That summer, a tweed jacket was uncovered on the beach near Glen Arbor, an article of clothing exactly like that Timber was wearing at the time of the accident.Two months later, other articles of clothing washed up on South Manitou Island, those also presumably belonging to the young men who had stripped off their heavier clothing after the plane impacted the water.
Many Questions, Few Answers
The Rennie accident inspired many questions, both among those responsible for safe air travel and the public generally. Some centered on personal blame: Did the pilot err in leaving Traverse City in the first place?Did he make the right decision in turning back after 15 miles over Lake Michigan?Was he experienced in dealing with situations like that encountered beyond Frankfort?Pilot error is almost always involved in airplane accidents.
Other questions probed the airplane, itself.One news account claimed it lacked a radio, an instrument that could have alerted authorities on shore that the pilot would attempt a forced landing on the Lake.A search for the airplane could have begun sooner with that information.Another question related to the safety equipment on board: Could the pilot and passengers have been saved if the plane was equipped with proper flotation devices?Inflatable rafts had been invented before 1933; in fact, one had saved Richard E. Byrd, an aviator who attempted a trans-Atlantic flight in 1925.After his plane had run out of fuel a mile off the French coast, he paddled to shore in one kept for just such an emergency.
Finally, there were questions that we can ask now in light of our present knowledge about flying.How detailed and reliable were weather reports available to aviators at the time?Would James Gillette have set out that Thursday if he knew banks of fog lay off Frankfort? Communication between airports was quite primitive at the time, sometimes relying on telephone.Did the Milwaukee airport realize the plane failed to arrive on time, and, if so, why didn’t it set up an alarm?The wife of James Gillette phoned Milwaukee and was told erroneously that Rennie had already conducted his business.Only later on Friday after she telephoned the airport, did she learn they had never arrived, but by then it was too late: Within a few hours upon learning this news, she was told about the crash and the death of her husband.
Surely, all of these questions must have entered the mind of Albert Meyers, inspector for the Department of Commerce, the agency for aviation safety at the time.He attempted to interview Margaret Rennie soon after the accident, but found she was too distraught at that time, and presumably had to return later.We know he wondered why, when the plane left Traverse City at 9:10, it plunged into Lake Michigan more than an hour-and-a-half later, the time elapsed longer than it would have taken to complete the journey.A possible answer to that question was printed in the Traverse City Record-Eagle, the Monday following the rescue.
Chick Rennie’s friend, Jack G. Fleckenstein, reported that he had received a telegraph from Rennie dated Thursday, June 22nd at 9:50 that he was planning a trip to Canada in coming days.The stamped time on the telegram confirmed that the plane had not departed at 9:10 as erroneously indicated.Fleckenstein went on to confirm his friend’s experience and skill as a pilot: he often refused to fly if the weather looked doubtful.
Unfortunately, the National Archives in Washington, D.C. has been unable to locate Meyer’s report—if it exists at all.Perhaps, the findings were wrapped into general summaries of airplane accidents at the time.Without it, researchers must deal only with newspapers and statements on the public record, a means of getting at the truth that leaves us with speculations, not conclusions.
Newspaper weather forecasts for June 22, 1933 indicate a day expected to be mostly fair, temperature in the 70’s with scattered clouds.At a time before weather satellites and weather radar, that sort of forecast was the best that could be offered.There were no storms in the vicinity, no expectation of fog banks obscuring visibility.James Gillette was probably not at fault for attempting the journey on that day—at least as far as the weather was concerned.
Jack Fleckenstein speculated that Rennie had flown directly to the Lake Michigan coast from Traverse City, then went due south to Frankfort to begin the cross-lake segment of the trip.Ordinarily, Chick would fly at 1200 feet, an altitude insufficient to climb above the fog bank.Fleckenstein noted that his friend distrusted altimeters, assuming they were off by as much as 400 feet.That distrust of his instruments could have been a factor in the crash.
It is incredibly difficult to fly in clouds or fog, relying solely on instruments.Pilots must learn to ignore signals from their own balance system and constantly check the altimeter, airspeed indicator, magnetic compass, and any other instruments available to them (quite possibly the Stimson Junior had nothing else).To achieve instrument rating today requires many hours of training and experience: a pilot attempting to fly into clouds and fog without that experience survives by luck.However skillful James Gillette may have been, he was not prepared to encounter dense fog over Lake Michigan.
Today, pilots training under Visual Flight Rules are instructed in the bare rudiments of instrument flying.For example, they are taught how to execute a 180 degree turn to fly out of a cloud, something that Gillette may have attempted as he descended to land on the water.We do not know if he received this kind of instruction when he was trained in the late 1920’s.
In 1933 airport radar had not appeared in the form it has taken today.Airport workers did not have screens showing the movement of aircraft miles away: there were no blips that suddenly disappeared as in the case of an accident.At the same time, there was no weather radar to describe atmospheric conditions.A fogbank over Lake Michigan would have been reported to meteorologists elsewhere by telegraph, if at all.Given the technology of the time, James Gilette made do with the best forecast he could get upon his departure.His judgment was not faulty in this regard.
The deaths of three persons in the Rennie crash could be attributed to many factors.Pilot error was a part of it: James Gillette failed to respond in a manner that could have saved his aircraft and the lives of his passengers.At the same time, the airplane itself had its shortcomings including the absence of an inflatable raft and communication devices (if, indeed, it had no radio).Weather forecasters had not yet come up with reliable descriptions of local weather conditions, including that off-shore fog building over a frigid lake.Finally, rescue efforts were not begun in time to save lives due to poor communication between airports and other individuals on the ground.The technology and protocols had not developed by 1933.
Dawning of a New Era
In the twenties and thirties, aviation stirred the public as rockets did in the sixties and seventies.Aviators were the astronauts of their time, risking their lives to accomplish unbelievable things.While an ocean liner crossing the Atlantic would take four days at best, Charles Lindberg could accomplish the feat in 30 hours.Trains required three days to cross the continent in 1933.Roscoe Turner flew that distance in eleven-and-a-half hours.
In the Traverse City area, Cherry Festival queens had arrived by airplane with much fanfare—in fact, James Gillette had piloted them to the city twice before.He was scheduled to perform the same duty for the festival the year he died.Airshows had become an exciting Festival event, much as the Blue Angels flight demonstration squadron today excites visitors in Cherry Festival performances before audiences numbering in the hundreds of thousands.
For all the hoopla, flying was a dangerous business.Every six months the Commerce Department published the Air Commerce Bulletin, a report that summarized data concerning air safety.In the period that included the Rennie tragedy, 128 persons died in crashes, with more than 90 severely injured.One accident occurred for every 42 thousand miles traveled with one fatality for every 409 thousand miles.Seeing enormous opportunity for economic growth in the fledgling airline business, the government had an interest in improving safety.Passengers would not fly unless they were convinced they would arrive safely at their destinations.
The Commerce Department analyzed the causes of airplane accidents in the Bulletin.Pilot error (called Personnel) was blamed for the greatest share of accidents–as it is today—accounting for 51 percent of all accidents.It was broken down into several categories including judgment, technique, and negligence.Would James Gillette have been faulted for going out when he should have (judgment)?It seems unlikely.Would he have been accused of not operating the airplane skillfully (technique)?Perhaps.He failed to execute a 180-degree turn to get out of the fog, and then to descend to the Lake.We do not know how the government inspector decided as to the cause of the Rennie accident.No doubt his subjective opinion determined what he wrote in his evaluation.
Beyond pilot error, three other causes of accidents were highlighted in the Commerce Department report: engine failures, airplane failures, and a general category that captured such things as bad weather, darkness, and airport terrain.Fully twenty percent of accidents were caused by engines that stopped working in flight.Ten percent of them happened when the aircraft presumably lost an important component, a rudder, a section of wing, etc.The third category, natural causes outside the airplane, was responsible for 18 percent of crashes.Could the 1933 accident be blamed on the weather?Perhaps.It is a judgment call.
Aircraft safety measures have made accidents like the Rennie tragedy exceedingly rare, even as flight hours have increased many times over.General aviation data from 1938 shows that the accident rate was 125.9 accidents per 100,000 flight hours.In 2009 the figure was 7.2.Nowadays, airplane engines rarely stop running in flight, essential parts do not fall off, weather reports are accurate so that pilots can make sound judgments about when to fly.If a plane does go down, a variety of mechanisms come into play: radio communication with flight control personnel and radar pinpoint the location.Today, a small aircraft regularly flying over Lake Michigan would have an inflatable raft able to hold five persons, an accessory desperately needed in the Rennie crash.Search-and-rescue teams aboard helicopters spring into action upon hearing a distress call.Since the thirties, it is no wonder that fatalities per 100,000 flight hours have decreased more rapidly than the accident rate for small aircraft.
Three persons lost their lives, one survived on June 22, 1933 as a small plane plunged into Lake Michigan.The story of the heroic efforts of three men to save Margaret Rennie moved people in the Traverse area, the states of Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as the entire nation.Those efforts were seen as acts of chivalry in the Aviation Age, not different from those a hundred years previous in the Age of Sailing Ships—or even, for that matter, those of the Medieval Age before that.Beyond that symbolism, the Rennie accident did accomplish a more practical goal: through examining the causes and acting upon that information, it set the stage for protecting lives in the future from airplane crashes that could be prevented—or, if they did happen–made less tragic.That legacy lives with us today.
Margaret Rennie remarried two years after the crash.She lived a relatively quiet life, bringing up her three children, John, Halcyon, and Martha Jean, in the Traverse area.According to a family member, she rarely discussed what happened to her: it was not something she wanted to relive.Throughout her life she kept rooms dark in the summer, drawing the blinds to keep the sun out.Was that because of the awful memories of sun and wind so long ago?Certainly the effects of that experience would color her days to the end of her life—and in ways she, herself, might be unaware of.Margaret died in 1972 at age 67.She was interred in the Omena Cemetery in Northern Michigan.
Poison ivy, poison sumac, poison oak: the three poisons we have to take care not to touch. The third doesn’t grow here, so we don’t need to worry about it. Somewhat rare in Northern Michigan, Poison sumac is a tall shrub that grows in wet places—I have seen it in the Platt River valley, locally. Ed Voss’s magnificent floral guide Michigan Flora shows a cluster of counties with the species: Benzie, Grand Traverse, Leelanau, and Antrim. It is much more common downstate.
Poison sumac will not be confused with other sumacs, the staghorn sumac, for example. That plant has red berries and grows along fields and edges of hardwoods. As a teacher, I sometimes had to quell students’ fears that they would break out from touching staghorn sumac. Unlike that familiar shrub, poison sumac grows in places where you get your feet wet. If it has berries at all, they are white. The leaves have the shiny look of poison ivy, but have 7-11 leaflets. Persons in search of pretty autumn color for their homes may be surprised to learn they brought it into the house.
Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) is closely related to an Asian plant (Toxicodendron vernicifluum) which is used to make lacquer in Japan and elsewhere in Asia. While serving in Japan, a dermatologist friend told me that patients came to him with a rash similar to that of poison ivy on the backs of their thighs. The cause turned out to be toilet seats covered with the offending lacquer.
Poison ivy grows in a variety of plant communities: sand dunes, banks, shores, and along roadsides and railroad tracks. In the north, it does not climb trees, but remains as a small shrub, scarcely growing taller than two feet. Its shiny green leaves are, indeed, in threes (“leaves of three, let them be”), but that characteristic is not at all helpful since strawberry leaves come in threes, too. In contrast to the shrub form, it frequently takes on the growth habit of a vine in Southern Michigan, climbing a variety of trees, often to great height. Manistee county, according to Voss, is the farthest north this variety is to be found.
Are two such radically different varieties—one a shrub and the other a vine—really the same species? In most characteristics—leaf position and shape, length of leaf stems, inflorescence (arrangement of flowers on the stem), number of flowers, fruit size—they are similar, but not identical. The vine form has aerial rootlets to cling onto tree trunks, while the shrub form has none. If they are the same species, they should form intermediate forms upon crossing the two. Have they been crossed to see what the offspring look like?
Unfortunately, my source—William T. Gillis’s article in the Michigan Botanist, Vol. 1, 1962—talks only about one failed attempt. An early frost killed the buds on the growing hybrids. Gillis did attempt to bring the northern rydbergii form to southern Michigan to see if they would begin to take on southern characteristics. They did not.
Let us leave the subject to say that poison ivy is a highly variable plant. One characteristic that all forms have is that they possess urushiol, the offending substance that causes the skin reaction in some persons. It is not volatile, so you cannot get the rash from merely standing close to plants: you must break the resin canals in the leaves in order to be exposed. Once exposed, it may take one or two days to react, or—in some cases—only a few hours, depending on the sensitivity of the person afflicted. Dogs and cats can carry the allergen on their fur, and smoke from burning leaves can cause serious trouble. It can even be carried on water—at least in the case of poison sumac, the species that loves to grow with roots in the water.
Not everyone is sensitive. Some persons can handle leaves and fruit with impunity. However, you cannot always count on previous insensitivity to avoid the rash. Sensitivity can change over time, and in either direction. Steroidal creams and lotions ease the suffering of those afflicted, and the itching and angry blisters will disappear over time. Still, a person will not want to suffer this assault every year. So much the better to learn these plants and avoid them.
Historians love it when they find a new source of information that sheds light upon a subject they are interested in. So it was when, after idle searching on the internet, I came across IndustrialChicago, Volume 6, Logging Interests, a book that offered plentiful information about Perry Hannah, Albert T. Lay, and the Hannah Lay company, the firm responsible for the building of Traverse City. Reading the book in the comfort of my home, I learned about the company not from the limited perspective of local history sources, but from Chicago-based ones. In addition to information about the company itself, the narrator told anecdotes about founders of the company, Hannah and Lay, stories that had lain untold so far in the telling of our history.
Some information simply confirmed what we thought we knew.Did the lumber taken from Northern Michigan help rebuild Chicago after the great fire of 1871, the fire allegedly started by Mrs. O’Leary’s cow?Indeed it did.We are told that the Hannah and Lay yard lay south of the fire’s devastation.The company was well positioned to supply lumber for the rebuilding process.
Exactly how profitable was Hannah Lay?The reader of Industrial Chicago is given figures about board feet of lumber produced at mills of the Hannah Lay empire, but these are difficult to interpret.How much is a billion board-feet after all?A better indicator is this: In 1895, the year of publication of the book, the company owned the Chamber of Commerce building at the corner of LaSalle and Washington outright.It was valued at the time at three million dollars, a sum in today’s money that would total closer to 35 million.A postcard from the time shows its magnificence: fourteen floors with astounding ornaments—a palace, which has been replaced, sadly, by the Chicago Board of Trade building.
What does Industrial Chicago tell us about the founders of the company?About Perry Hannah, it revealed not much that we didn’t know.I found it interesting that he obtained a Common School education probably consisting of ‘reading, ‘writing, and ‘rithmetic, before he moved to the Port Huron area with his father at the age of 13.There he learned the art of rafting logs to be sent down the St. Claire river to sawmills to be sawn into lumber.His roots were close to the working class, unlike his partner Albert T. Lay.
Lay was educated in private schools until the age of 16, presumably a more rigorous education than the public schools at the time.His father was a legislator to the US House of Representatives for the state of New York.Is this why young Lay’s signature appears bold and competent, in contrast to Hannah’s—that reading and writing were activities he had spent much time doing?At first, he stayed in Traverse City to set the new mill near the mouth of the Boardman River to working properly, but five years after arriving at the rude settlement carved out there, he and Hannah resolved to change places.Perry Hannah would stay in Traverse City and Lay would handle the Chicago operations.Lay, perhaps because of his superior education, would be involved in the more intricate dealings with suppliers and major customers.
Albert T. Lay’s early years in Traverse City have not been described by previous historians.We know that in 1853 he ran against James Strang, the Mormon leader at Beaver Island, and lost that election to the Michigan legislature.He oversaw the construction of a steam-powered sawmill at edge of Grand Traverse Bay.He probably approved the building of the first Hannah Lay store, just 16 x 20 feet, the ledgers of which still remain at the Bentley Historical Library in Ann Arbor.
Lay named Traverse City.In 1853, seeking a postal route for the settlement, he presented the name “Grand Traverse” before officials in Washington, D.C., later accepting their suggestion to strike out the “Grand.”It would be Traverse City, the “City” element added later.
What does one do to found a city?In the past, Harry Boardman and his son Horace were given credit for founding Traverse City.They bought land here, built a sawmill in 1847, and began the production of lumber at that early date.A hundred years later, in 1947, historians convinced city leaders that the centennial celebration should occur in that year.The settlement began with Boardman’s acquisition of land and the subsequent logging of the trees on the property—no matter that the Boardmans never put down roots here.They bought the land and sold it soon after.
The whole question of who founded the City–and when–seems silly to Native Americans who had set up camps here from prehistoric times.Still, there is something in a name.Whoever names a place deserves credit for that act.By that rule, Albert T. Lay founded the City.
One story about the rude, uncivilized nature of the Traverse area tells about Lay and a judge friend from Manistee who had come north to visit the logging operation at the foot of Grand Traverse Bay.The judge promptly identified a man in the sawmill crew as a run-away criminal wanted for the murder of his own daughter.Quickly, he made Lay the deputy sheriff of the new region, and then named him deputy county clerk, deputy county treasurer, and deputy school inspector.In short, Albert T. Lay temporarily held all the offices for the soon-to-be Grand Traverse county.After the sawmill was stopped to secure men for a jury, the trial proceeded apace, the defendant declared guilty.He was tied to a post at the mill (since there was no jail), and was sent downstate to serve a life sentence in prison there.Justice was done with the aid of the young owner of the sawmill at the mouth of the Boardman.
In praising Lay, I do not want to disparage Perry Hannah’s contribution to Traverse City.After all, he did stay at this ramshackle outpost for 47 years, keeping away from the enticements of a grand city—Chicago—only a day away by railroad or steamer.He pushed to have the Northern Michigan Asylum located in Traverse City and personally guaranteed support to the Carnegie library, thereby assuring it would be built on Sixth Street, opposite his home.He donated land to churches and generally treated people fairly and with generosity.When Traverse City was a small settlement, he—and his company—ruled the town, but for all that, he was a benevolent despot.We could have done much worse.
At the same time, we should not neglect the other founder of Traverse City, Albert T. Lay.A small park on Union Street bears his name, but few persons remember what he did for the community.There is no statue, as there is of Perry Hannah across Union street, though a plaque is mounted on a boulder that reads: Lay Park: To commemorate Albert Tracy Lay, pioneer lumberman, who, with Perry Hannah, in 1851 founded the first permanent settlement on the site of Traverse City.”What elegant simplicity!The two together founded the city.
Why are some trees species eager to leaf out early in spring while others stay dormant until much later?Poplars and maples break dormancy quite early, sometimes before the last frost, while black locust, oaks, and catalpa bide their time, often waiting until late May.Certainly, as with most things in nature, many factors explain the difference, but here I would like to concentrate on one of them: the kind of wood trees make.
Wood is the water-conducting tissue of a plant.Under the microscope it appears to be made up of long, torpedo-shaped cells liberally sprinkled with holes to let water pass through.Wood is mostly made of these cells–called tracheids.Pine trees have no other specialized cells to carry water up the tree, but broadleaf trees do, vessels.
Vessels are not torpedo-shaped at all, but resemble soda straws.You need a microscope to see them, but they are quite large as cells go, and that size can be a drawback.If air bubbles form inside them or ice crystals form in a late spring frost, they can be damaged so that no water goes up to service the expanding leaves.
Trees with large vessels are especially at risk.Just when buds need water from the roots, none is forthcoming.The solution, for such trees as black locust and oaks, is to manufacture a ring of vessels early in spring to carry the water up.The trouble is, it takes time to do so, time which the tree yields to other species that do not have to form a fresh layer of vessels, maples and poplars.That means those species get the jump on those working to make new vessels.Trees that make vessels lose out for a time in the battle for sunlight.
For all that, they are quite successful.Black locusts are “weed trees,” growing rapidly like weeds, whole groves of them joined together with underground rhizomes.A white oak takes a different pathway, putting its energy into growing a single individual.Both trees have a ring of vessels laid down in early spring, a ring clearly visible in the wood’s annual growth rings.They will serve as the major plumbing system until dormancy in the fall.
However, some ring porous trees leaf out early.The explanation, according to one researcher, is evolution: they simply evolved in a warmer climate, spreading later to the North.Science is never straightforward in the answers to questions it provides.
Shrubs leaf out early for a different reason.They need to get as much sun as possible before the large trees expand a dense canopy of leaves above.This year, see if that is not so: Do smaller native shrubs leaf out before the trees of the canopy overhead?
The time of leafing out—budburst some call it—varies according to the year, the habitat, the species, and the weather.Naturally, a warm spring hastens the process, while days of frost inhibit it.In these days of climate change, trees spread their canopies earlier on average than they used to.They flower sooner, too, and they change color later in the fall.In recent decades southern species do better than before in northern climates: Will pecans enjoy the newly changed winters of Northern Michigan?
One project —budburst—seeks to enlist amateur scientists in charting the leaf-out times for different tree species.If readers wish to join this year’s study, they can sign up this year at budburst.org
All plates taken from; Mauseth, James D. “Plant Anatomy.” Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park, California, 1988.
In the broadest sense, aquaculture means growing water plants and animals for food, but in the Great Lakes area, it refers mostly to fish farming, raising fish in ponds or within nets in a defined area. The practice is controversial with entrepreneurs claiming it can be done without harming the environment and environmentalists countering that it can threaten important ecosystems. Whether it should be done in Lake Michigan or Lake Huron raises still more questions. In this feature, two of our contributors, Stewart McFerran and Charles Weaver, take up the issue, each supporting opposing sides.
Two iron loops are buried in the wood of this White Oak, located on the shores of Boardman Lake, on the Highland Assisted Living Center grounds. We speculate that the tree, given its current size, was already very large a hundred years ago, especially since White Oaks grow so slowly . What were they used for? We will give you our hypothesis next month!
by Joshua G. Cohen, Michael A. Kost, Bradford S. Slaughter, and Dennis A. Albert, published by The Michigan State University Press, 2015
By Richard Fidler
Naturalists get excited whenever a new book appears that waters their interests: For me, this volume does exactly that—it fills a gap in knowledge I have long wanted filled, the natural communities of Michigan.A natural community, according to this field guide, is defined as “a natural assemblage of interacting plants, animals, and other organisms that repeatedly occurs under the same environmental conditions across the landscape and is predominantly structured by natural processes rather than modern anthropogenic disturbances.”Examples help to clarify the academic language: a Marsh describes a group of natural communities; a Dry Northern Michigan Forest is commonly found where we live, wherever soils are dry and well-drained; Open Dunes, commonly found along the lakeshore, is a community that features few tall woody plants.I have always been sloppy in applying terms to natural communities, often loosely referring to “habitats” or “ecosystems.”Now I know better.
It is important to note that the communities described in the book do not include agricultural land, whether in cultivation or abandoned relatively recently.It does not include any land that has been disturbed by humans—a roadside ditch cannot be classified as a sort of marsh or swamp.Because so much land has been cultivated and developed during the period of white settlement over the past two centuries, many natural communities are imperiled, their existence threatened by planned interventions that do not always respect natural places.Conveniently, this field guide indicates which communities are most endangered.
Each natural community is described by its soils and geology, its hydrology (how water moves), its distribution, and by the plants that live there.A general map of Michigan indicates where they are to be found—and, even better, specific locations are given to those who would care to pay visits.Now, with the book informing where to go, I must get to Drummond Island to see the alvar natural community, the community that occupies cracks on bare limestone rock. Existing in only a few places on Earth, it might be compared to an endangered community in remote Africa.Lacking the wherewithal to get to that place, my safari will begin a hundred and forty miles from here, on Drummond.Exotic travels can begin close to home!
The Field Guide, it must be said, will be most useful to naturalists with a background in plant identification and with a knowledge of terms that relate to natural communities.Commendably, it does have a glossary with terms defined gracefully in a language all can understand.Still, it would be a good idea for explorers to latch onto a naturalist for a guide.I do that whenever I can, even though I am someone frequently latched onto.
Keeping in mind Traverse City is a thoroughly disturbed landscape, still, let us look about for remnants of its natural past.In fact, it is comprised of several recognized communities, among them, the Mesic Northern Forest (found around the hills near the Commons), the Dry Northern Forest (most of the city proper), the Rich Conifer Swamp (mostly around Kids Creek); and the Sand and Gravel Beach (by the Bay shore).
Great beech trees of the Mesic Northern Forest grow on the hilly moraines above the former State Hospital grounds, on Madison street, and at Hickory Hills.They predate white settlement by many years, but are now doomed by Beech Scale disease, an affliction that should destroy them within the next ten years.Ashton Park on the West side of town presents a similar array of massive hardwoods.
Traverse City was mostly Dry Northern Forest, but the bulk of its giant white and red pines were cut down in the nineteenth century.However, large white oaks survived the onslaught of loggers’ axes and survive in neighborhoods to this day.
The street names Cedar and Spruce point to the trees that lived along Kids Creek (formerly called Mill Creek and Asylum Creek).The land survey of 1851 tells us exactly what kinds of trees lived here at that time: white cedar and white spruce were often recorded.The Rich Conifer Swamp that occupied this place disappeared long ago, replaced by occasional black willows and invasive plants of many kinds.
Finally, along the Bay front, dune grasses persist on the grounds of the Hagerty Center, a gift provided by landscapers who pay attention to natural plant communities.Though much degraded from former times, natural communities like the Sand and Gravel Beach can still be found within the City limits.
A Field Guide to the Natural Communities of Michigan is a treasury of information for all who love Nature.It is profusely illustrated with color photographs of 77 communities, often featuring aerial photographs and pictures of indicator plant species.The Traverse Area District Library purchased a volume using funds dedicated to the remembrance of Bob Rudd, local teacher and naturalist.Readers may find that they need to own a copy as they explore the glorious wilderness around us.
Swimmer’s Itch plagues many Michigan lakes. Children are especially affected as itchy red bumps appear on legs and torso, soon after swimming. Little can be done to alleviate the itching—the old remedy of baking soda is probably as good as any. In a few days it disappears on its own, anyway.
The cause of the itch has been known for many years: a tiny parasite inhabits snails of the lake, shedding them into the water on warm summer days.These cercariae are neither bacteria nor viruses, but a member of the flatworm phylum.In short, they are worms.Many years ago, at the University of Michigan Biological Station, I remember seeing them emerge from snails confined to a watchglass under a low-power microscope.Compared to other such water creatures, they weren’t that small.You could see them with your eyes if you cared to look.
After leaving the snails, apparently tired of the pace of life there, they swim around looking for a secondary host, frequently diving ducks such as the Common Merganser.Finding one, they bore through its skin, somehow finding one another in the circulatory system to mate (I believe the animals are bisexual).Afterwards, they migrate to the digestive tract where they produce eggs ready to be shed into the water with the duck’s feces.Gaining the freedom of open water, they locate snails to infect, thereby completing the cycle.
We humans should be bystanders to this unwholesome series of events, but for one thing: the cercariae mistake us for ducks.Only after entering the outermost layer of skin do they realize their awful mistake, but it is too late for them: our body’s immune system reacts to kill them off, that response leading to an angry, itching bump, swimmer’s itch.
Various methods have been used to control the pest.At least two of them have been tried locally: copper sulfate and removing duck populations.Copper sulfate kills snails, one of the hosts, but that method has been largely abandoned because it is not particularly effective in the long run and because it has harmful effects on other life.
Getting rid of ducks is easier said than done.You can’t shoot them all—after all, there are game laws and many of us (including me) like them.One technique is pyrotechnics.At first I thought this had to do with firecrackers and bombs to drive away flocks, but that is not exactly so.As applied to duck control, pyrotechnics has to do with firing a variety of noisemakers including propane cannons, thunderboom sticks, and bird bangers.A loud noise sends flocks flying, no matter what the source.
Glen Lake has tried this method for several years with inconclusive results.The Glen Lake Association on its website reports the itch still is bothersome, but not as bad as at Higgins Lake, where no such control has been attempted.For some persons, the intermittent detonations may prove as annoying as the itch.
A friend whose family owns a cottage at Glen Lake for many years tells me that the lake has always had a swimmer’s itch problem.The red, itching bumps were a rite of summer.Usually, they do not discourage children to the point they will not go in the water.Swimming and splashing in the water are just too much fun.
There are some things you can do to avoid swimmer’s itch (aside from scaring ducks and poisoning snails).There is some evidence that the cercariae are to be found more often on sunny, warm days, especially close to shore.Onshore winds drive them close to beaches where children are likely to play.Shorter swimming sessions might make infection less likely, too.Unfairly, suntan lotions often contain compounds that attract the itch organisms.Parents cannot catch a break—they must protect their children from the sun and from annoying creatures in the water.Apparently you cannot do both at the same time.
My reaction is that we will probably have to use these common sense measures of control—at least for now.As a duck lover, I hate to see flocks constantly chased off lakes by loud noises.Besides, how long will it take for them to get used to booms and pops?After all, the sounds of traffic in New York City used to be so quiet that they were ignored in 1850.Now, in 2017, it is no different, only we accept 70-decibel noise as normal.Wouldn’t the ducks do the same as we did—learn to ignore the noise?
Richard Fidler is co-editor of Grand Traverse Journal.